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Ref ID: 28507
Ref Type: Journal Article
Authors: Eder, James F.
Title: The caloric returns to food collecting: disruption and change among the Batak of the Philippine tropical forest
Date: 1978
Source: Human Ecology
Abstract: The changing economy of a group of tropical forest hunter-gatherers is examined. The Batak of the Philippines today earn many calories by participating in an external market system
once they would have earned these calories within the traditional subsistence system. Gathering and selling Manila copal to purchase rice has partially displaced digging wild yams as the major source of subsistence. Data show that this change has reduced the productive efficiency of human labor. The Batak must work longer and perform more difficult tasks to obtain the same number of calories by collecting copal as they can obtain by digging wild yams, even as they must today work longer hours anyway to earn necessary cash to satisfy new, nonfood consumer wants. The growing dietary importance of rice is only one aspect of changing food consumption patterns that may be having an unfavorable impact on Batak nutrition.
Date Created: 12/1/2011
Volume: 6
Number: 1
Page Start: 55
Page End: 69