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Ref ID: 26726
Ref Type: Journal Article
Authors: Acabado, Stephen
Title: Zones of refuge: Resisting conquest in the northern Philippine highlands through environmental practice
Date: 2018
Source: Journal of Anthropological Archaeology
DOI: 10.1016/j.jaa.2018.05.005
Notes: In-press at time of entry
Abstract: Environmental practice in Ifugao, Philippines is considered to have anchored the successful resistance against Spanish conquest in the highlands of the Philippine Cordillera. The social practice associated with wet-rice production in the region is argued to promote community solidarity and cohesion, past and present. By looking at the wet-rice cultivation and its associated rituals, this paper contends that habitus played a major role in the perpetuation and preservation of Ifugao culture during the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines. Recent dating of the Ifugao rice terraces suggests that the agricultural marvels were constructed as late as ca. 400 years ago. Previously thought to be at least 2000 years old, the recent findings of the Ifugao Archaeological Project (IAP) show that landscape modification for terraced wet-rice cultivation started at ca. 1650 CE. The archaeological record implies that economic intensification and political consolidation occurred in Ifugao soon after the appearance of the Spanish empire in the northern Philippines (ca. 1575 CE). The foremost indication of this shift was the adoption of wet-rice agriculture in the highlands, zones that served as refuge for local populations. I argue that the subsistence shift was precipitated by political pressures and was then followed by political and economic consolidation. The imperial resistance was expressed through wet-rice agriculture
it also facilitated political integration. Using paleoethnobotanical, faunal, and artifactual datasets, this paper documents the process that allowed the Ifugao to resist conquest.
Date Created: 9/25/2018