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Ref ID: 22404
Ref Type: Book Section
Authors: Eiji Izawa,
Title: Iron lumps formed from the ancient copper smelting: an example from Naganobori, Japan
Date: 2015
Source: Metals and civilizations
Place of Publication: Bangalore, India
Publisher: National Institute of Advanced Studies
Notes: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on the Beginnings of the Use of Metals and Alloys (BUMA VII)
Abstract: The iron lump formed from copper smelting at the ancient Naganobori mine, Japan, was compared with the iron-copper alloy produced by the replication experiment and also with the iron lumps unearthed from an ancient bronze casting workshop. The compositions of the metals and matte in the iron lumps from three cases are similar in each other. The iron contains 1.4-10 % Cu. The copper contains 0.4-4 % Fe. The bornite solid solution consists of two phases, dark phase (ca. 58 % Cu) and light phase (ca. 66 % Cu). The carbon content of the iron varies from less than 0.01 to over 0.77 % C. The important factor for the formation of iron lumps is the presence of a small amount of sulfur in higher-temperature reducing conditions.
Date Created: 4/11/2016
Editors: Srinivasam, Sharada
Ranganathan, Srinivasa
Giumlia-Mair, Alessandra
Page Start: 55
Page End: 61