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Ref ID: 37119
Ref Type: Journal Article
Authors: Yamaoka, Takuya
Sato, Hiroyuki
Mijares, Armand Salvador
Title: Multifaceted analyses of lithic artifacts from Callao Cave in northern Luzon (Philippines)
Date: 2021
Source: Quaternary International
DOI: 10.1016/j.quaint.2021.01.027
Abstract: Recently, several studies have presented quantitative data of lithic assemblages from Islands Southeast Asia (ISEA), based on technological and morphological analyses. While this has led to a better overall understanding of the nature of these assemblages, there is still lack of clarity about the relationship between manufacturing technology and usage. Accordingly, this study collected detailed data of lithic assemblages from Callao Cave in northern Luzon, Philippines. Multifaceted analyses including technological and morphological analysis and use-wear analysis were conducted to clarify the actual nature of lithic technology and tool use in relation to human behavior. Results of the technological and morphological analysis show that several core tools share same types of secondary reduction (retouch) with flake tools, while there are several retouched tools (flake tools and core tools) with several types of secondary reduction (retouch). In addition, there are no major differences between the sizes of the core tools and flake tools. Result of the use-wear analysis indicates that several retouched areas on both the core tools and flake tools were actually used. These stone-tool manufacturing and usage characteristics suggest that the hunter-gatherers who left the assemblages did not clearly distinguish between cores and flakes (or between core tools and flake tools), and did not treat lithic tools as single-function items. That is, it appears that secondary reduction was completed depending on the shapes, thicknesses, and angles of the edges of these lithic artifacts. The users/manufacturers thus placed emphasis on functional edges. It also seems that the core tools were used as both tools and objects for flake production. The characteristics of the assemblages in manufacturing and their usage suggest that lithic artifacts and lithic raw materials were used in Callao Cave efficiently and economically. Furthermore, in terms of their primary and secondary reduction processes, the assemblages from Callao Cave are considerably different from Upper Paleolithic assemblages found in the northern regions of Eurasia. This indicates that the characteristics of stone tool manufacturing and usage in Callao Cave reflect another strategy of early modern humans for using lithic raw material. However, these characteristics of the assemblages may most closely reflect the characteristics of the occupations and activities in the site. Accordingly, similar analyses, including technological and morphological analysis and use-wear analysis, need to be conducted on other lithic assemblages which are composed of many lithic artifacts in ISEA.
Volume: 596
Page Start: 93
Page End: 108