This chapter discusses the current state of archaeological research on the Champa culture of central Vietnam. Although recognized since the late nineteenth century, Champa is still far better known for its architecture and sculpture than for its archaeology in a broader sense. Excavations at Tra Kieu and Go Cam have revealed the importance of Han China to the emerging polities of central Vietnam, such as Linyi, during the first half of the first millennium AD. Sanskrit and Cham-language inscriptions can also be used to link the historical and archaeological heritage, revealing a localized development of Hindu-Buddhist temple architecture and the design of defensive enclosures or citadel sites. Our understanding of the ceramic sequence after the fourth century AD however remains very limited, restricting the dating and identification of domestic sites, but there is great potential for ethno-archaeology.