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Ref ID: 37134
Ref Type: Journal Article
Authors: Larena, Maximilian
Sanchez-Quinto, Federico
Sjödin, Per
McKenna, James
Ebeo, Carlo
Reyes, Rebecca
Casel, Ophelia
Huang, Jin-Yuan
Hagada, Kim Pullupul
Guilay, Dennis
Reyes, Jennelyn
Allian Pir, Fatima
Mori, Virgilio
Azarcon, Lahaina Sue
Manera, Alma
Terando, Celito
Jamero Jr, Lucio
Sireg, Gauden
Manginsay-Tremedal, Renefe
Labos, Maria Shiela
Vilar, Richard Dian
Latiph, Acram
Saway, Rodelio Linsahay
Marte, Erwin
Magbanua, Pablito
Morales, Amor
Java, Ismael
Reveche, Rudy
Barrios, Becky
Burton, Erlinda
Salon, Jesus Christopher
Kels, Ma. Junaliah Tuazon
Albano, Adrian
Cruz-Angeles. Rose Beatrix
Molanida, Edison
Granehäll, Lena
Vicente, Mário
Edlund, Hanna
Loo, Jun-Hun
Trejaut, Jean
Ho, Simon Y. W.
Reid, Lawrence
Malmström, Helena
Schlebusch, Carina
Lambeck, Kurt
Endicott, Phillip
Jakobsson, Mattias
Title: Multiple migrations to the Philippines during the last 50,000 years
Date: 2021
Source: PNAS
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026132118
Abstract: Island Southeast Asia has recently produced several surprises regarding human history, but the region’s complex demography remains poorly understood. Here, we report ∼2.3 million genotypes from 1,028 individuals representing 115 indigenous Philippine populations and genome-sequence data from two ∼8,000-y-old individuals from Liangdao in the Taiwan Strait. We show that the Philippine islands were populated by at least five waves of human migration: initially by Northern and Southern Negritos (distantly related to Australian and Papuan groups), followed by Manobo, Sama, Papuan, and Cordilleran-related populations. The ancestors of Cordillerans diverged from indigenous peoples of Taiwan at least ∼8,000 y ago, prior to the arrival of paddy field rice agriculture in the Philippines ∼2,500 y ago, where some of their descendants remain to be the least admixed East Asian groups carrying an ancestry shared by all Austronesian-speaking populations. These observations contradict an exclusive “out-of-Taiwan” model of farming–language–people dispersal within the last four millennia for the Philippines and Island Southeast Asia. Sama-related ethnic groups of southwestern Philippines additionally experienced some minimal South Asian gene flow starting ∼1,000 y ago. Lastly, only a few lowlanders, accounting for <1% of all individuals, presented a low level of West Eurasian admixture, indicating a limited genetic legacy of Spanish colonization in the Philippines. Altogether, our findings reveal a multilayered history of the Philippines, which served as a crucial gateway for the movement of people that ultimately changed the genetic landscape of the Asia-Pacific region.
Volume: 118
Number: 13
Page Start: 1
Page End: 9