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Ref ID: 37042
Ref Type: Book Section
Authors: Hudson, Bob
Title: Early states in Myanmar
Date: 2022
Source: The Oxford Handbook of Early Southeast Asia
Place of Publication: New York
Publisher: Oxford University Press
DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199355358.013.11
Abstract: Following centuries of settlement intensification in Upper Myanmar (Burma) during the Iron Age, urban centers, many enclosed by brick walls, began to appear in the early centuries of the first millennium AD. Settlement characteristics include monumental architecture, management by a power elite, water control systems, coinage, literacy, and a calendar. From around the tenth century AD a power group based at Bagan began to expand militarily and administratively until by the thirteenth century, inscriptions and religious artifacts found over much of the area encompassed by modern Myanmar show that a kingdom had incorporated the culturally related but politically independent city-states that had preceded it.
Editors: Higham, C. F. W.
Kim, Nam C.
Page Start: 660
Page End: 678