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Ref ID: 22390
Ref Type: Book Section
Authors: Craddock, Paul
Cribb, Joe
Gale, Noël H.
Gurjar, Lalit
Title: Sources of zinc in early India: the evidence of numismatics, trade and lead isotope analysis
Date: 2015
Source: Metals and civilizations
Place of Publication: Bangalore, India
Publisher: National Institute of Advanced Studies
Notes: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on the Beginnings of the Use of Metals and Alloys (BUMA VII)
Abstract: A limited programme of lead isotope analysis was undertaken on early Indian zinc coins and the zinc alloy <i>bidri</i> ware. The lead isotope ratios for the coins form a very tight cluster in contrast to those for the <i>bidri</i> which are much more dispersed. Subsequent numismatic work on the coins suggests that they were minted in the north west of India where recent geological exploration has identified likely centres for early non-ferrous smelting including zinc. The coins are likely to be of Medieval date and are thus the earliest coins of zinc found anywhere in the world. Continuing work on Post Medieval international maritime trade in metals has made it clear that already by the early 17th century zinc was being imported into India from China. Indeed Indian zinc does not seem to have featured in later international trade and production in the 17th and 18th centuries was probably very limited.
Date Created: 4/11/2016
Editors: Srinivasam, Sharada
Ranganathan, Srinivasa
Giumlia-Mair, Alessandra
Page Start: 174
Page End: 184